**1. What is the binary number system?**

**Ans:**The system which has a base 2 is known as the binary system and it consists of only two digits 0 and 1.

For Example: Take decimal number 625

625 = 600 + 20 + 5

That means,

6×100 + 2×10 + 5

6 ×102 + 2×101 + 5×100

In this 625 consists of three bits, we start writing the numbers from the rightmost bit power as 0 then the second bit as power 1 and the last as power 2. So, we can represent a decimal number as

∑digit × 10corresponding position or bit

Here 10 is the total number of digits from 0 to 9.

**2. What is the difference between Latch And Flip-flop?**

**Ans:**The difference between latches and Flip-flop is that the latches are level triggered and flip-flops are edge-triggered. In latches level-triggered means that the output of the latches changes as we change the input and edge-triggered means that the control signal only changes its state when goes from low to high or high to low.

Latches are fast whereas flip-flop is slow.

**3. Define Digital System?**

**Ans:**Digital systems are the system that processes a discrete or digital signal.

**4. What is meant by a bit?**

**Ans:**Bits are the binary digits like 0 and 1.

**5. What is the best Example of a Digital system?**

**Ans:**Digital Computer.

**6. How many types of number systems are there?**

**Ans:**There are four types of number system:

1. Decimal Number System.

2. Binary Number System.

3. Octal Number System.

4. Hexadecimal Number System.

**7. What is the Logic gate?**

**Ans:**The basic gates that make up the digital system are called a logic gate. The circuit that can operate on many binary inputs to perform a particular logic function is called an electronic circuit.

**8. What are the basic Logic gates?**

**Ans:**There are three basic logic gates-

AND gate.

OR gate.

NOT gate.

**9. Which gates are called Universal gate and what are its advantages?**

**Ans:**The Universal gates are NAND and NOR. The advantages of these gates are that they can be used for any logic calculation.

**10. What are the applications of the octal number system?**

**Ans:**The applications of the octal number system are as follows:

For the efficient use of microprocessors.

For the efficient use of digital circuits.

It is used to enter binary data and display of information.

**11. What are the fundamental properties of Boolean algebra?**

**Ans:**The basic properties of Boolean algebra are:

Commutative Property.

Associative Property.

Distributive Property.

**12. What is meant by K-Map or Karnaugh Map?**

**Ans:**K-Map is a pictorial representation of the truth table in which the map is made up of cells, and each term in this represents the minterm or max term of the function. By this method, we can directly minimize the Boolean function without following various steps.

**13. Name the two forms of Boolean expression?**

**Ans:**The two forms of Boolean expression are:

Sum of products (SOP) form.

The Product of sum (POS) form.

**14. What are Minterm and Maxterm?**

**Ans:**A minterm is called the Product of sum because they are the logical AND of the set of variables and Maxterm is called the sum of product because they are the logical OR of the set of variables.

**15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the K-Map Method?**

**Ans:**

**The advantages of the K-Map method are as follows:**

It is an excellent method for simplifying expression up to four variables.

For logical simplification, it gives us a visual method.

It is suitable for both SOP and POS forms of reduction.

It is more suitable for classroom teachings on logic simplification.

**The disadvantages of the K-Map method are as follows:**

It is not suitable when the number of variables exceeds more than four.

For Computer reduction, it is not suitable.

We have to take while entering the numbers in the cell-like 0, 1 and don't care terms.

**16. Define Fan-in and Fan-out?**

**Ans:**

**Fan-in:**The Fan-in of the gate means that the number of inputs that are connected to the gate without the degradation of the voltage level of the system.

**Fan-out:**The Fan-out is the maximum number of same inputs of the same IC family that a gate can drive maintaining its output levels within the specified limits.

**17. What are the applications of Multiplexer (MUX)?**

**Ans:**The applications of the multiplexer are as follows:

It is used as a data selector from many inputs to get one output.

It is used as A/D to D/A Converter.

These are used in the data acquisition system.

These are used in the time-multiplexing system.

**18. What are the applications of Flip-Flops?**

**Ans:**The applications of flip-flops are:

Flip-flops are used as the delay element.

These are used for Data transfer.

Flip-flops are used in Frequency Division and Counting.

Flip-Flops are used as the memory element.

**19. What is the difference between D-latch and D Flip-flop?**

**Ans:**D-latch is level sensitive whereas flip-flop is edge sensitive. Flip-flops are made up of latches.

**20. What are the applications of Buffer?**

**Ans:**Applications of the buffer are as follows:

Buffer helps to introduce small delays.

Buffer helps for high Fan-out.

Buffer is used to eliminating cross talks.